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Titan or pure titanium dioxide is not widely used in industry, so it is mostly composed of TiO2 cores with multiple coatings of inorganic or organic materials. These additives increase the dispersion quality of titanium powder and its better compatibility with other polymer compounds.
The number and nature of the layers as well as the particle size distribution are the factors that distinguish different grades of titanium dioxide.
Titanium production methods
In the sulfate method, a raw material called ilment is used. After crushing the stone, the accompanying impurities are separated. After grinding, it is dried and then dissolved in oleum.
The oleum is slowly diluted with sulfuric acid and water. In this process, a solution of titanium dioxide sulfate, ferric sulfate with silica is obtained.
By filtration, the insoluble silica is separated and some iron is added to the solution to convert all the available iron into divalent salts. The solution is then separated and transferred to the evaporation tank after refining, and the ferrous sulfate is separated as a crystal.
The next step is to boil the solution to hydrolyze titanium sulfate to titanium hydroxide.
With this method, titanate type of anatase is prepared. The rutile type is prepared by adding rutile particles or adding zinc salt before hydrolysis.
In the chloride method, chlorine gas is passed over a mixture of rutile ore at a temperature of 900 ° C (the percentage of titanium oxide purity in rutile ore is 95-96%).
Titanium tetrachloride is liquefied by cooling and purified by distillation. Titanium tetrachloride burns at 1000 ° C in the presence of oxygen, which oxidizes to give titanium dioxide.
By precisely controlling the oxidation process, a purer titanium powder is obtained, which is completely white in color and has almost the same particle size.
Distribution and dispersion of titanium dioxide
Titan powder works well when it is well dispersed throughout the product. In order to have the desired color, proper resistance to changes in weather conditions, lack of transparency against UV rays and sunlight, the particle size must be less than 5 micrometers. In summary, the particle size distribution of titanium affects the following appearance characteristics: surface texture, spots on the surface, streaks on the product, opacity against light.
Applications of titanium powder
As a white pigment
Titanium powder is used when a white pigment is needed. Rutile in decorative paints and glossy paints, anatase type in industrial paints where whiteness is an important issue. But its resistance to weather is not so important.
Titanium dioxide in creams and cosmetics
Titanium dioxide is a UV filter and therefore an effective sunscreen. It is often used in loose and compressed cosmetic powders, especially “mineral powder” cosmetics, in addition to other cosmetics, lotions, toothpastes and soaps.
Titanium dioxide in sunscreens is a much safer option than regular sunscreens such as oxybenzone and octinoxate. However, titanium can be dangerous when it is the size of nanoparticles.
In general, nanoparticles can be 1000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. Although nanoparticles are becoming increasingly common throughout the industry, they have not been properly evaluated for health effects on humans and the environment, nor have they been adequately regulated.
Researchers do not fully understand the effects of nanoparticles on human health and the environment. However, due to their very small size, nanoparticles may be chemically reactive, resulting in greater bioavailability and different behavior from larger particles of the same material. These characteristics may lead to potential damage to the human body or ecosystem.
Because of the uncertainty about the effects of nanoparticles, cosmetics companies use precautionary principles, meaning that they avoid nanoparticles until broader scientific experiments prove their safety.
Cosmetic companies should allow and use titanium dioxide as part of sunscreens and cosmetics. All titanium dioxide must be non-nanoparticles. Titanium dioxide is not allowed in other personal or household care products.
How to deal with titanium dioxide in products
Avoid using titanium in powdered cosmetics, including loose and compact powders, eye shadows and blushes.
Some sunscreens are labeled “non-nano”. Choose them, and contact the company if the label does not indicate that the titanium dioxide is the size of the nanoparticles.
Look for safe seals on products, which means that they are not made without titanium dioxide and other ingredients related to human health and ecosystems.
Buy Titan and Titan powder
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